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Renovation Design of Architectural Heritage based on 3D Laser Scanning Data

发表时间:2023-06-07 22:57作者:专筑设计

Renovation Design of Architectural Heritage based on 3D Laser Scanning Data

Guiye Lin 1, Xiaoyun Liu 2, Andrea Giordano 1, Luigi Stendardo 3,

Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Padua, Italy;;;

Department of Architecture and Urban Studies, Politecnico di Milano, Italy:

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples ‘Federico II’, Italy;


Keywords 3D Laser scanning, renovation design, architectural heritage

1. Introduction

Traditional villages have a lot of tangible and intangible cultural heritage and high artistic standards. With the fast growth of the urban economy and the spread of land, there are now areas on the edges of both urban and rural cities. Traditional villages in these areas are caught between trying to keep their old ways of life and growing cities. Outside of Shenzhen, the Fenghuang Ancient Village is a great example of a traditional village on the edge of a city. It is in Shenzhen's Baoan District, on the city's outskirts. It is the most critical and best-kept group of old buildings in Shenzhen. It is also where the people related to Wen Tianxiang settled down. Even though there is some protection and renewal, there is still a big difference between the ancient village and the modern city in terms of how they work, look, and live. The ancient village's vitality cannot be maintained.

3D scanning technology and three-dimensional digital information technology have helped with mapping and surveying buildings and designing and building them. This paper looks at the use of BIM technology in the mapping and survey assessment, scheme design, and construction repair of traditional villages and buildings. It is based on restoring and reviving traditional villages and uses different research methods, such as collecting records, simulating models, and visiting villages. It has examples of how digital information methods can be used in traditional structures and how to do that. The framework of this article is as follows Figure 1.

This paper compares and sums up how traditional villages and buildings can be brought up to date and given a new life. It also sets up a framework for a model that can be used to keep traditional village buildings in good shape and fix them up. It gives a solid research base and convincing evidence to support the development of digital information methods and processes. For example, during the mapping and survey assessment stage of the Wen Ancestral Hall renovation project, traditional ways of getting information were sorted out. When BIM technology and 3D laser scanning technology worked together, it showed how to collect data using technology. For this comparison, Revit, the most popular BIM modelling software, was chosen for comparison because it is used in the design stage for traditional building renovation and revitalization. The application points of BIM's collaborative working mode and performance simulation optimization for ontology renovation and revitalization are put forward. The paper also has some suggestions on how to deal with problems and plan for the future of BIM technology in designing traditional village buildings to help them get a new life.

2. Renovation design based on 3D Laser scanning

Revitalizing a historical building is a hard job because some of them are broken or don't have enough information about it. As a result, each remodeling project has its own design site, making each refurbishment unique and unrepeatable.

The traditional way to revitalize architectural heritage is to turn the three-dimensional architectural space into a two-dimensional view based on historical documents or site survey data, then design the space in different views in the plan, elevation, and section, combining virtual 3D models for spatially assisted design and renovation, but not in a real three-dimensional space. With the fast growth of 3D laser scanning technology, its main uses are in topography and geology, engineering quality inspection, digital protection of architectural heritage, tunnel monitoring, crime scene investigation, and so on. It has slowly moved from scientific research into people's everyday lives, and its use in a wide range of large projects has become more mature over time.

The use of 3D scanning technology in the revitalization and renovation of architectural heritage allows for the precise and timely collection of site data needed during the pre-design phase. This reduces the amount of resources used in the process of collecting site data.

2.1 Limitations of traditional design methods

During the design phase of a project, traditional methods like field surveys, hand-drawn sketches, site photography, and so on are usually used to gather preliminary site data. This is done before 3D modelling software like 3ds Max, Sketch-up, and Revit is used to reconstruct the project site to simulate the renovation project's site information and provide a basis and reference for the later design of the renovation. When these data are processed, the final data model frequently contains massive data errors, missing data from the surrounding environment, and missing building material colours, resulting in a data disaster, model with a large number of errors. In a three-dimensional world, that is incorrect. Especially for historical buildings, it is hard to show the level of damage to the interior space with two-dimensional data.

In the design phase, the typical method is based on the architect's design ideas for the project. The new volumes are modelled in software, and the whole process takes place in a virtual setting. Returning to the original setting for observation and comparison is not possible. When the renovation scheme model is put into the plain modelling environment, there are problems like not being able to control the architectural style precisely, choosing building materials without much thought, and not being able to see how the design scheme fits into the site environment in real time. During the deepening design stage, renovation design must be done again with accurate site data for the feedback analysis. The traditional mode's environment model, on the other hand, is mostly just a simple block environment with no analysis of the natural site environment.

The traditional way to show a design is through renderings, which is usually two-dimensional drawings showing the design from different angles. Environments in renderings are usually just blocks made by modelling software. They don't have the atmosphere of a natural scene and don't look or sound real.

2.2 Investigating the use of 3D scanning in the restoration of architectural heritage

2.2.1 Preliminary site investigation:

During the Preliminary site investigation, two levels of the site's environment and historical materials were looked into. The site environment data was collected using a Faro s350 3D laser scanner to create a realistic point cloud model, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 shows how the point cloud model was used to build an accurate BIM model of the site, while urban planning, historical background, architectural features, and other information, as well as site survey records, were used to collect historical documentation data.

2.2.2. The schematic design

When the point cloud model is integrated into the space design scheme, the designer can not only design in real three-dimensional space but also compare multiple programs in the actual building environment atmosphere to push the integration of the building and the environment. This makes it easier for the project to make better design decisions, keep site data as accurate as possible, and get more done in less time. Figure 4 depicts the situation.

Unlike traditional design methods, it must not only build an environmental model by hand, but it can only draw a rough model of the site data based on photographs and manual measurement data. This makes it harder to get accurate site data back if the site has bumps and different heights. This will also result in the loss of site knowledge during the design process.

On the other hand, the designer should try to understand as much as possible about the owner's goals and needs during the early stages of conceptual design. The difference in professionalism brings different perspectives of the scheme when communicating with the owner. The reverse reconstruction of the basic information on the site can make Communication is more intuitive and direct, reducing communication errors and increasing design efficiency.

2.2.3 Expression and realization of retrofitting design results

Traditional 3D renderings of design plans only shows one fixed view, which makes it hard to give feedback on how the design site really feels. They can also cause information about the design to be left out, which makes the results of the transformation different from what was expected. When combined with the 3D scanned and restored site data, the scheme can be built right on the point cloud model, and the design scheme can be exported from any angle, depending on what the project needs. Show as Figure 5.

After the remodeling design plan is done, it must be stated in two-dimensional building drawings, together with various design data, and paperwork must be numbered and summarized to make communication with the contractor easier. Due to the use of 3D laser scanning technology to copy project scenarios, information models made with BIM technology, and more interactive VR and AR technologies, a new era of historical building rehabilitation design is possible.

This method uses 3D scanning to get accurate information about the architectural design site. This results in a more accurate model of the environment, a BIM model of the design scheme that is built into the model, and a tour path based on the set route and angle of visit. All of these are combined with VR to create a highly realistic and experiential representation of the results.

It has the potential to be easier to use and involve more people than traditional ways of representing things.


The research in this paper is funded by the China Scholarship Council (CSC).


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